|Introduction to Psychology
Author: Valkrie PM
*Nonfiction* Notes from my Psychology 100 Class. Information is organized by chapter. PM me if you want the properly formatted notes.Rated: Fiction T - English - Chapters: 9 - Words: 26,288 - Favs: 1 - Updated: 02-16-13 - Published: 02-12-13 - id: 3100336
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Chapter 1: Introduction to Psychology
Psychology—definition: The science of behavior and mental processes.
The scientific method: Hypothesis Test Get Data Results Publish/Replicate
Dependent and independent variables
Biases in our thinking
Emotional Bias: Make judgments on feelings and not rational analysis of evidence.
Confirmation Bias: Remember events that confirm beliefs and forget others.
Hindsight bias: "Knew it all along"
5 Types of Psychological Research:
Experiments: Are the gold standard for determining cause/effect
Correlational Studies: Cannot randomly assign participants to groups. Used when scientists have no control over situation to conduct true experiment ( Ingestion of lead based paint causes learning disabilities). Does not determine cause/effect.
Surveys: Advantage b/c large information can be collected quickly and inexpensively. Disadvantage is that it is weak to biases: Social desirability bias, wording of question can generate certain response, sample may not accurately represent general population, and survey conditions (anonymous/people may complete in setting that biases responses).
Naturalistic: Descriptive research involving behavioral assessment of people or animals in their natural surroundings. Are made under less controlled conditions than experiments. Observing natural behavior offers better insights than what is found in a lab setting and is also more cost effective. Disadvantage: Must wait for the behavior to occur naturally; People behave differently if they know they are being watched.
Case studies: Advantage the only method appropriate for very unusual cases, often over a long period of time. Disadvantage Lack of generalizability; very time consuming; highly subjective
Double blind studies
Psychology's main perspectives:
Biological: Descartes Brain, nervous system, endocrine system, and hormones determine behavior. Split into neuroscience and evolutionary psychology.
Cognitive: Wilhelm Wundt and William James a person's unique pattern of perceptions, interpretations, expectations, beliefs, and memories.
Behavioral: John Watson and BG Skinner The stimuli in our environment and the present consequences of our behaviors
Whole Person: Sigmund Freud Psychodynamic: Processes in our unconscious mind. Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow Humanistic: Our innate needs to grow, and fulfill our best potential. Ancient Greeks Trait and temperament: Unique personality traits that are consistent over time and across situations.
Developmental: Mary Ainsworth ad Jean Piaget The interaction between heredity and environment, which unfold in predictable patterns through the lifespan
Sociocultural: Stanley Milgram and Philip Zimbardo The power of the situation. Social and cultural influences can overpower the influence of all other factors in determining behavior.
Ethical Issues in Psychological Research
Deception: Used institutional review boards IRBs. Inform as soon as possible.
Types of brain scans
fMRI: Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging measures brain activity by detecting blood oxygenation/flow in response to neural activity. Notes BOTH Brain activity and structure.
MRI: Magnetic Resonance Imaging uses magnetic pulses to create detailed picture of the brain.
CT: Computed Tomography uses X rays. Reveals gross structures of the brain
PET: Positron Emission Tomography uses radioactive material to map functional processes of the brain. More radioactivity mean more brain activity.
EEG: Electroencephalography is the measurement of the electrical activity of the brain by recording from electrodes placed on the scalp.
MEG: Magnetoencephalography is an imaging technique used to measure the magnetic fields produced by electrical activity in the brain w/ pulses of magnetic energy. Uses SQUIDs
NIRS: Near infrared spectroscopy is an optical technique for measuring blood oxygenation in the brain.
Types of psychologists: Experimental, teaching, and applied psychology.
Applied psychological specialties: Industrial/organizational, sports, school, clinical/counseling, forensic, environmental
Critical thinking questions: Make reasoned judgments on claims
Different levels of explanation: Social Behavioral Mental Neurological Neurochemical Molecular