|Reviews for History of Manchuria|
| Prussian Prince chapter 1 . 2/4/2015
Parnulka, much of your criticisms are unfounded. Most of all, your last comments on the Manchus are completely wrong as they did everything they can to preserve their language and culture and keep their homeland Manchu. Read "The Manchus" by Pamela Kyle Crossley and "Manchu: a Textbook for Reading Documents" and you'll see why.
Great essay by the way!
| Burak Alp Aybn chapter 1 . 1/24/2015
Thanks for this very useful information.
| parnulka chapter 1 . 8/31/2014
There are several errors in the essay. "China" 中國 referred to Han only eras only during the Ming dynasty. When the Qing took over, the Manchus declared that the entire Qing Empire, including "Manchuria" was part of 中國. The Manchu translation of 中國 is Dulimbai Gurun, and they said that their homeland was part of Dulimbai Gurun. In the Treaty of Nerchinsk with Russia, it specifies the area as part of Dulimbai Gurun. The Yongzheng Emperor also said that the Manchu people were part of 中國.
"Manchuria" 満州 originally was not a place name, it was not used by either Manchu or Han Chinese people. 満州 originally only referred to the ethnic group. The Qing called their homeland the "three eastern provinces" 三東省, not Manchuria 満州. It used to be called "Nurgan" 奴兒干 during the Ming.
It was a Japanese mapmaker who first used 満州 as a place name in thr 18th century and wrote it on a map, and that map was then copied by Europeans, who began calling the area "Manchuria", they originally called it "Tartary".
The Han people in Liaoning weren't driven out, they were put into the Eight Banners as the Hanjun Banners 漢軍八旗, The Ming Imperial descendants, the Marquis of Extended Grace 延恩侯, were put into the Hanjun Banners. Now the Hanjun banners identify as Manchu people.
The vast majority of Manchus had moved south of the Great Wall after 1644 and already lost their language during the Qing dynasty, only a small amount of Manchu remained in Manchuria. Most Manchus lived around Beijing and in garrison cities, with a large Han population surrounding them.
| Shannon chapter 1 . 8/10/2014
What a cool essay! I enjoyed learning so much about Manchuria. You make the history and culture of the area very interesting. Your English is nearly flawless. Are you a native English speaker? I would suggest reading this essay out loud to yourself, however. You don't make any technical errors, but sometimes your sentences are simply unclear. Reading out loud is a time-honored trick for dealing with that.