Group: A set of individuals who have at least one of the following characteristics: Direct interactions, joint membership in a social category, or a shared, common fate, identity, or set of goals.
Collective: An assembly of people engaging in a common activity but having little direct interaction with each other.
Stages of Group Development: 1) Forming: Members orient themselves and often act in polite exploratory ways. 2) Storming: Members try to influence group to best fit their own needs. Can lead to conflict/hostility and excitement about what can be achieved. 3) Norming: Members reconcile conflicts and develop a common sense of purpose and perspective. Establish norms and roles and feel more commitment. 4) Performing: Members perform tasks and maximize group performance. 5) Members disengage from the group.
Group Roles: Instrumental roles – help the group achieve its tasks. Expressive roles – provide emotional support and maintain morale. Homogenous group = everyone with same skills. Congruent group = people with necessary skills assigned to proper tasks. Incongruent group = people with necessary skills assigned to improper tasks.
Norm: Rule of conduct for members of a group.
Group cohesiveness: the extent to which forces push group members closer together, such as through feelings of intimacy, unity, and commitment to group goals.
The Zajonc Solution: Resolves contradiction from Triplett fishing rod research. Presence to performance requires 3 steps: 1) Presence of others generates arousal, which energizes behavior. 2) Increased arousal enhances tendency to perform the dominant response. 3) The quality of performance varies according to the type of task (easy/hard).
Social Facilitation: A process whereby the presence of others enhances performance on easy tasks but impairs performance on difficult tasks.
Zajonc's Mere Presence Theory: The proposition that the mere presence of others is sufficient to produce social facilitation effects
Evaluation apprehension: A theory that the presence of others will produce social facilitation effects only when those others are seen as potential evaluators.
Distraction – conflict theory: A theory that presence of others will produce social facilitation effects only when those others distract from the task and create attentional conflict.
Social Loafing: A group-produced reduction in individual output on tasks where contributions are pooled.
Collective Loafing Model: The theory that individuals will exert effort on a collective task to the degree that they think their individual efforts will be important, relevant, and meaningful for achieving outcomes that they value.
Deindividuation: the loss of a person's sense of individuality and the reduction of normal constraints against deviant behavior. Arousal + Anonymity + Reduced individual responsibility = deindividuation.
Social Identity Model of Deindividuation Effects (SIDE): A model of group behavior that explains Deindividuation effects as the result of a shift from personal identity to social identity.
Process Loss: The reduction in group performance due to obstacles created by group processes, such as problems of coordination and motivation. Additive task = product is sum of all group contributions. Is particularly vulnerable to social loafing. Conjunctive task: group product is determined by the individual with the poorest performance: IE mountain climbing. Disjunctive task: group product is determined by the individual with the highest performance.
People brainstorming as a group come up with a greater number of better ideas than the same number of people working individually. FALSE
Brainstorming: A technique that attempts to increase the production of creative ideas by encouraging group members to speak freely without criticizing their own or others' contributions.
Factors that reduce effectiveness of group brainstorming:
Production blocking: People forget ideas while they are waiting their turn to speak.
Free riding: Others get less motivated to talk when they hear others contribute ideas. Think their contributions are less necessary.
Evaluation apprehension: Are reluctant to suggest crazy ideas for fear of looking foolish. Even if idea is shared, they might spend too much time thinking of reasons to justify it.
Performance matching: Members only work as hard as they see others work.
Effectiveness of electronic brainstorming:
Less production blocking – can type ideas whenever
Less freeriding – computer can keep track of member input
Less Evaluation Apprehension – anonymous comments can be made.
Less Performance matching – group members spend less time focusing on others when they type themselves.
Group members can benefit by seeing the ideas of others, which can inspire new ideas.
Group members' attitudes about a course of action usually become more moderate after group discussion. FALSE
Group Polarization: The exaggeration through group discussion of initial tendencies in the thinking of group members. Can be created by 1) Persuasive arguments theory 2) Social comparison 3) Social categorization
1) Persuasive arguments theory: the greater number and persuasiveness of arguments to which members are exposed, the more extreme their attitudes become.
2) Social comparison: If most group members lean in one direction, individuals may adopt a more extreme attitude in the same direction.
3) Social categorization
Groupthink: A group decision making style characterized by excessive tendency to seek concurrence among group members. 3 things contribute: 1) Highly cohesive groups are more likely to reject members with deviant objections 2) Groups made of people from similar backgrounds, isolated from other people, directed by a strong leader, or lacking systematic procedures for reviewing decisions 3) stressful situations.
Prevent groupthink by 1) Avoiding isolation and 2) reduce group pressures to conform by explicitly encouraging criticism and not taking a strong stand early in the group discussion.
Escalation Effect: The condition in which commitment to a failing course of action is increased to justify previous investments.
Biased Sampling: The tendency for groups to spend more time discussing shared information (information already known by all members) than unshared information (information only known by one or a few members.)
Transactive memory: A shared system for remembering information that enables multiple people to remember information together more efficiently than they could alone.
Group Support Systems: Specialized interactive computer programs that are used to guide group meetings, collaborative work, and decision-making processes.
Social Dilemma: Situations in which a self-interested choice by everyone creates the worst outcome for everyone. IE Prisoner experiment.
Prisoner's dilemma: A type of dilemma in which one party must make either cooperative or competitive moves in relation to another party. The Dilemma is typically designed so that the competitive move appears to be in one's self interest, but if both sides make this move, they both suffer more than they had both cooperated.
Resource Dilemma: Social dilemmas involving how two or more people will share a limited resource. 1) Commons dilemma ("take-some dilemma"): People take as much as they want from a limited, nonrenewable resource = nothing left for anyone 2) Public goods dilemma: all individuals have to contribute resources to a common pool. IE libraries, parks, blood supply.
Large groups are more likely than small groups to exploit a scarce resource that the members collectively depend on. TRUE
Social Value Orientation: 1) prosocial cooperative orientation – seek to maximize joint gains 2) individualist orientation – maximize own gain 3) competitive orientation – maximize own gain relative to that of others.
Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction (GRIT): A strategy for unilateral, persistent efforts to establish trust and cooperation between opposing parties.
Integrative agreement: a negotiated resolution where all parties obtain outcomes that are superior to a 50-50 split.
Kevin and ten other sophomores just formed a new college fraternity. According to Tuckman, the initial mode of behavior of Kevin and the other fraternity members is most likely to be: polite.
Which of the following comments would you be most likely to overhear in a group characterized by groupthink? "The fact that we're all in agreement is a good indication that this is the best plan of action."
Group polarization occurs when the initial tendencies of the group are: intensified.
The escalation of the war in Vietnam, despite mounting evidence that this strategy was failing, is an example of: entrapment or escalation effect.
Mrs. Lang is going to have her seventh-grade social studies class do group projects. In order to minimize the effects of social loafing, she might: grade individual as well as group efforts.
During which process of group development do members try to shape the group in accordance with their own inclinations? Storming
Which of the following is a conjunctive task? A relay race
Nathan laments that too few citizens donate money to the local police force. In effect, he is complaining about the results of a: public goods dilemma.
One of the differences between a collective and a real group is that: only group members interact meaningfully with each other.
Research by Johnson and Downing (1979) suggests that sense of deindividuation: can lead to positive, as well as destructive, behavior.
The group is a strong as its "weakest link" when the task is: conjunctive.
People who respond to mixed-motive situations by seeking to maximize their own gain relative to the gain of others have: a competitive orientation.
A community service club has formed to organize volunteers who want to help the needy. The goal of the club is to encourage its members to donate their time, interdependently, wherever there is a need. One thing that can enhance the performance of the club's members is: cohesiveness.
An excessive tendency among group members to seek consensus is called: groupthink.
Social loafing is most likely to occur in which of the following groups? Summer campers who are asked to clean the campgrounds of litter in preparation for visiting day.
The more groups focus on _, the more likely that they will be characterized by groupthink. reaching agreement
Which of the following might be characterized as a public goods dilemma? Shortage of contributions causes a public television station to cancel programs.
A baseball player and the team owner can't agree on a contract. They ask Harold to listen to their positions, agreeing to abide by his decision. Harold is being asked to act as: an arbitrator.