Jamestown:
-80% Single young men
-$ focused

Mayflower:
-Violate the faith = The faith dies
-Protests start in Puritan Society:
-Grey; Land disputes
-Williams; Religious Freedom
-Anne Hutchinson; Women preachers
Tobacco:
-First shipment shows huge profit

House of burgesses created:
-Land owners
-Governed area and took land claims
-More $$; More say

Food taken from the natives
-Shortage of food in Jamestown and Williamsport
-Pumonke people led Good Friday Massacre; killed 300 whites
-Militarization followed

Middle dutch colonies:
MD, PN, NJ: Catholic based religions; won for England in the war of dutch sucession

Bacon's Rebellion:
-Nathaniel Bacon went past western border and requested House Of Burgess status
-Refused; also refused militia protection

-Chain of command caused frustration; Governor to Parliament.

Generational Puritanism:
-Not as strict
-Halfway covenant; Stoddard
-1 or 2 generational member
-Only need have 1 parent in church to get in
1690: Salem Witch Trials
-Reverend's daughter accused
-Spread to all women
-Way to prove innocence; Blame someone else
-20 Women were killed; 4 men beat to death

Great awakening:
-Jonathan Edwards
-Said that we need to flock to jesus and ask for his forgiveness
-We all need to unite as christians
-Quaker/Society of Friends

French/Indian war; George Washington starts it
-HOB charged him to go west for the Ohio company
-Clear NA out of the area
-Fought french forces at camp; shot a cousin of a major military officer
-Built fort necessity and surrendered; signing a treaty that admitted to assassination

England sent General Braddock and 1400 men
-Defeated; braddock KIA

General Howe, Wolfe; 50,000 men sent to America
-England won against French.
-Treasury all but empty
-Tax the colonies!
-Use currency
-Started to illegally trade

Sugar Act:
-All sugar must go through england
-Riots break out; GA cane fields burned

Stamp act; 1765:
-Any legal contracts or transactions must have stamp
-Stamp is a tax
-Stamp act congress; produces resolutions:
-Articles I-IV; We love being english
-Articles V; No taxation without representation

Declaratory Act; 1766:

-Fully english; full tax burden
-Riots get worse
-General Gage housed in boston; in peacetime

Boston Massacre; Feb. 14, 1770
-Men left england and arrived in 3 weeks
-Pelted with snowballs and epithets
-Locked in barracks for 2 weeks with no sleep
-Commanding officer hit with Snowball coated in ice; it drew blood; and men opened fire

The Gaspee incident; 1772:
-Ran aground off MA
-Boston's set fire to the ship, and all men had to jump and swim; 7 die

Tea Tax act; 1773: 3 pence/lb
-Made the tea cheaper; people protested

-Sons of liberty dress up as Mohawk indians and dump 5 tons of tea
-$3 Million today
-Peaceful; even helped clean up afterwards
-Everyone knew who it was; nobody talked

"Intolerable Acts":
1. Boston port act; Closed boston port until the tea was paid for
2. MA Government Act: Made it technically illegal to live in MA
3. Administration of Justice act: Trials will be on english soil
4. Quartering act: Soldiers can be placed in private homes in peacetime
5. Quebec act: Rid of land claims given to colonists; given to canadians.

Committees of Correspondents: Delegates sent to NY

-Independence
-Compromise all equally divided
-Give in

-Agree to meet again next summer.

Lexington and Concord:
-Paul revere and friends alert minutemen
-Met at lexington; shot fired which caused a clash

May; 1775: Continental Congress still had no consensus.

No concentrated conflict in the first year

Revolutionary war; unusual war
-Financed by the upper class (Washington)
-England dedicated 50,000 men to crush the rebellion; potential for 2,000,000

-Could not weaken the other colonies' stances

-Really didn't see the revolution as a major problem
-Colonies not unified
-French declared war; did not arrive until the 80's; unsure if we would succeed.

Saratoga:

-Rules changed

-European Countries joined with animosity towards England

-Prussia sent Advisors, French sent Advisors and Money

-France sent about 70 million dollars

-Russia sends money

France's Support:

-En Masse troops

-Fleet which keeps the English fleet out of the Chesapeake at the crucial battle

-Contributed heavily to our victory

Tactics:

-Cut off the money supply from the south

-Starve New England; Focal point is NYC

Results:
-Valley Forge

-Allowed the Continental Army to become an army

1779: Northern states really free

-NYC and South main battles

-Loyalists kept out

-International Support; also, with every minor victory gave a sense of nationalism

Oct 19; 1781:
-Cornwallis appoints a Lieutenant to surrender; no respect for Washington
-Washington appoints a Private to accept the surrender

Newburgh Conspiracy:
-Government could not pay for the pensions and wages
-Former Military Officers planned to use military force to overthrow the Ntl. Gov

-Washington went to quell the anger
-Veterans realised that Washington had sacrificed a lot;
-Fortune
-Health and Eyesight
-Dignity

War debts:
-$40 million
-Loaned money borrowed from colonists
-Could not be repaid under the Articles Of Confederation

Articles Of Confederation:

-1 Success: Western Territory Settlement

-Everything else failed

Shays' Rebellion:
-Farm foreclosed
-Pension and wages from the army not paid
-Led an uprising on a federal armory

Mount Vernon Convention: Consider improved trade and financial conditions of the US

Annapolis Convention: Proposed a series of amendments to the articles granting Fed. Power

One Year Later: Philadelphia Convention

Revising the articles:
-Long and arduous process
-"Federalist Papers"
-Democratic/Republicans did not like the Federalism's argument.

Federalist Papers:

-Arguments for the Constitution

-Thomas Jefferson and most of VA is won by the Bill Of Rights

Constitution emplaced with bill of rights
-Washington hounded into being elected
-Elected unanimously
-Judiciary Act established court system
-Executive branch picks; congress says yes or no

Economics; main focus of government (Ideally)
-Excise taxes put in place to increase federal revenue
-Hamiltonian vision of a strong central government
-Hamilton is Sec. Of Treasury; Used Necessary and Proper clause to make a bank

-Hamilton made the Federalist Party

-Based off his positions

Federalists VS Democratic Republicans:

-Industry VS Agrarian

-Loose Constitution VS Strict

Whiskey rebellion: 1794
-Taxes emplaced on both grain and whiskey
-No way out for farmers; Rebellion stopped by Washington and 13000 men

French revolution starts; napoleonic wars. Stay neutral

Constitution: 1790-1799:
-Country tried to define a government

Foreign policy is just trade. Could we defend our trade roots?

Neutrality proclamation; 1793
-Neutral against any foreign power
-Citizen-Genet affair; 1793
-Issue that does not affect us politically, just economically.

Jay's Treaty; 1794
-Exclusive trade with england in exchange for protection by their navy
-Starts Quasi war with french (1797)
-Undeclared naval war
XYZ affair;
-Tried to negotiate with france; called themselves X Y and Z to not be identified
-France gave a $140,000 fee to negotiate
-Alienated france; gave a strong sense of nationalism to the federalist party
-'Please stop impressing our soldiers'.

Jefferson:
-Claimed to have a complete vision of what america should become
-Said we should be more independant
-Agriculture 1st, Industry 2nd

Louisiana Territory:

-Constitutional?

-Jefferson would have criticised had he not been president

Chesapeake affair:
-England found deserters on one of our ships
-Forced boarding and took them; killing 4 americans

Result: Embargo of 1807
-No trade with europe (Anybody)
-Grain prices plummet
-Nobody invested; currency did not circulate
-Ruined american shipping (- TEST QUESTION)

Alien and Sedition acts:
-Intended to protect the possibility of insurrection
-Extended the waiting/naturalisation period for new citizens
-Aliens Act; President has the power to deport foreign nationals
-Sedition Act: Arrest people who speak out/protest against government
-Alien Enemies act: Right to arrest foreign citizens in times of war

Raised constitutional challenges;
-VA Resolutions; States reserved the right to review government
-KY Resolutions; States reserved the right to reject any unconstitutional act of congress
-Adams presidency was not popular.

Jefferson Administration:
-Tied with Aaron Burr; won in 1801 in the House vote
-Inaugural; "We are all federalists; we are all republicans."

Trade issues:

-Quasi war ends

-Pirates loot ships;
-Barbary Wars; 1803-1804

-Undeclared war
-First official military action by US armed forces

The frontier:
-Spain control over louisiana was acceptable; French control was unacceptable
-US/French friendship unlikely to last
-1803: France is Bankrupt; LA purchase for $15 million

Aaron Burr kills Hamilton in a duel.

War of 1812:
-England controlled great lakes
-Supposed distribution of arms among Indians along frontier
-War declared in response to silence on our demands

Treaty of Ghent: Dec 24, 1814
-They would leave

-Abandon garrisons in Great Lakes and Canada.

January 8, 1815:
-A. Jackson surrounds NOLA
-English charge the lines with no ammo
-832 english dead / 8 americans
-Jackson is a hero
-American Specialism; we started to think that we were superior
-Beaten england twice; once with no help
(They lost because parliament really couldn't have given 2 shits if they tried)

The era of good feelings:
-Federalists run out of congress
-Congress dominated by republicans

Agriculturally; the country is not unified:
-North; Family farms and merchants
-South; Plantations

Eli Whitney:
-Invents the cotton gin
-Short-fiber cotton can now be processed; it's much easier to grow
-Long-fiber cotton is harder to grow but very easy to process
-Cotton shifts into a cash-crop role
-60% of exports (!)

Henry clay points out that we need industry and more of it
-Samuel Slater hooks a large cotton gin up to a water wheel to run 24/7
-Massive profits

Robert Fulton: Steamboat
-Powered by steam
-Go upstream/Without wind/Against wind
-Ships cotton and cotton products; partnered with Slater's and Whitney's inventions

LA Territory: Slave or non?
-North V South
-Vote is 50/50 in senate; no resolutions

MO Compromise:
-36* 30' parell
-Touching or below: Slave
-Above: Free
-MO is admitted as a slave state

Lowell factory:
-Produced textiles
-Hired many women to loom and sew
-Not within the roles of women ?
-Taught women in Dorms how to read, write and do basic economics

Election of 1824: Most messy
-All democratic republicans
-Jackson and J. were main contenders after primaries

-JQ Adams changed the economy to a market economy in his last term

Jacksonian: Will he change the country to Plantation farms?

-Southerner

-Frontiersman

-People were suspicious of him

Jacksonian Presidency: Common-folk focused
-Cherokee Removal; violated Checks and Balances set; but congress supported
-Dec 10, 1838: All cherokee people were across MI river or dead
-Ntl. Bank created
-Unified states under one currency
-Minimized foreign economic influence (Investors)

Nullification Crisis: South Carolina's economy is stagnant

-Tariff hurts their economy

-Protested: Jackson threatened to send in the Military

Crisis over Renewal of Second National Bank:

-Stop the charter

-Jackson stopped funds to the Treasury

New act: All land bought from Fed must be paid with by gold or silver.
li88

Slavery:
Economically;
-Surplus of slaves
-Starved themselves to death

Corrupt Bargain:

-Bribed loyal supporters with Cabinet and Government Jobs

-Support him and get positions; oppose him and get removed from office.

Politically:
-Created divides; N/S and E/W
-Rich/Poor

Nullification crisis:
-Tariff made for 33% on Manufactured goods
-Clay supported; supposed to improve industry
-Jackson also supported
-Did not help industry

German and Irish Catholicism is coming over in large amounts
-Divide slums between Protestant and Catholics

Integration of the Economy:

-Industry grows

-East-West-North-South integrated

-National VS Regional

Great Awakening:
-Interest of the american people was migrating over to Economics and away from faith
-Methodist Churches spring up;
-Richard Alan; 1796; American Methodist Church of Boston
-Black minister; black congregation
-Horace Mann's mandation of education: 1837:
-In MA
-Any town over 50 families needs to provide a location and supplies for schooling and a teacher

Henry Clay's system:
-Focal point from 1815-1850
-Revenue Tariff was not in the constitution yet

Transportation Revolution:
-Shifted away from canals and towards RailRoads
-Consumerism/Capitalism; Goal is the wealth of the individual

-Toll Roads no longer used exclusively

-Railroads spring up and start to grow

2nd Great Awakening:
-Less physical-being; more next-life focused
-Conflicted Zone; nobody knew what to do

Mormons:
-Joseph Smith
-Moved west to Nauvoo, IL
-Smith killed; society moved to Utah

Shakers:
-Mother Ann Lee
-Concert-style faith

The Onidas:
-John Humphrey
-No rules
-Preached Deism

John O'Sullivan: Coins 'Manifest Destiny'
Fenimore Cooper: Glorifies the west

The Apologetics: 1831
-Tried to find any and all justifications for slavery
-Gag rule imposed; Slavery not discussed
-Refusal to discuss Texas annexation
-Senate was tied in slave versus free; no developments

-Gag rule imposed

Mexican Cession:
-Most of it below 36* 30' line
-Women's Rights and abolition joined forces

1836-1837: Pilgrim/Oregon trail opened

-Stop-Over points; ex: St. Louis, Chicago, etc.

-Manifest Destiny

-Shifted to Western Economy

Wilmot Proviso: 1848
-Any territory freed from Mexico is free

-CA petitions to become a state; extends over 36* 30' line.
-Admitted as a free state; Fugitive slave act founded
-Slave/Bounty hunters can go over state lines

New Fugitive Slave Law:

-Can go into north and retake runaways

-Requires Law Enforcement to help catch the runaways

-Free blacks can be arrested

1854: Kansas/Nebraska act:
-Popular Sovreingty

-Divides the Democrats even more
-Charles Sumner gave "The crime against Kansas"

-Brooks beat him with a cane

Bleeding Kansas: 1854-1859
-Freesoilers and Slave owners
-John Brown and sons fought in war; as ministers

North started to view the whole south as slave owners;
South started to view the whole north as abolitionists.

Lincoln-Douglas Debates:

-Douglas wins Re-Election but alienates the south; Lincoln's image is formed

Cotton: Crash from 1858-1860
-Egypt and India;
-England started producing their own cotton
1854-1856: Industrial Revolution
-Steel, Oil, Timber, Coal
-Weakened the cotton industry

Precursors to the war:
-Robert E. Lee, 1850: "By 1870, slavery will not be needed."
-Dred Scott case, 1856: Slaves have no rights and are; in fact; property.

December 17, 1860:
-Lincoln's election angered the south
-SC hosts a Secession Convention

-Based on what they thought lincoln would do
-SC secedes; 6 others follow; nothing is done by Bukennin

Fort Sumter:
-Ran out of supplies; sent by the union
-South opened fire
-Major Anderson lost, and was allowed to leave
-Second wave of Succession follows: 4 states

-Border slave states stay; were negotiated to fight for the union

Robert E. Lee
-Offered command of the Union armies
-Declined; joined confederacy due to his virginian state identity

Davis
-No political power
-Articles of confederation government
-All power is in the states: Causes issues with everything

-Fighting for the state; not the Confederacy.

Stonewall Jackson
-Led a few minor victories

-Shot by his own men
-Died 4 hours later

William T. Sherman:
-Led 'march to the sea' through Georgia

-Took savannah on Dec 24th, 1864

-'Anaconda plan' now completed

Abe Lincoln:
-Lawyer

-Claimed the war was about 'restoring the union'
-Emancipation Proclamation: We will take your slaves if you continue to rebel
-WV takes the deal
-Fought to secure a non-punitive reconstruction

-Killed by JWB on April 14, 1865

Bull Run I:
Confederacy surrounds the union forces; Confederate Victory
8400 casualties on the Union, 6600 on the Confederates

Bull Run II:
-Goal is to push lee back into Virginia
-McLellan was demoted and scolded for the defeat; hastiness and cautiousness.

Antietam: 1862

-Bloodiest day in the civil war

Wade-Davis bill:
-Punitive of south
-Lincoln Pocket-Vetoed; and claimed to have had an agreement

-War ends; April 9, 1865

Sherman's March To The Sea:

-Tennessee through Georgia

-Total War

-Final nail in the coffin

10% plan: If 10% of people in a given state swear allegiance to the constitution; the state is in with no punishment.

Assassination:
-Plan was to kill whole cabinet plus Grant

-Sec. Of state Roberts stabbed 36 times
-George Surratt chickened out of killing Johnson

-Grant cancelled at the last second

-John Wilkes Booth shot Lincoln; and broke his leg, hobbling out.

Johnson's Reconstruction:

Amnesty to a point; but not further than is deserved.

50% Plus plan:
-10% but with 50%

-Amnesty to former Confederates
-Veto Power to prevent punishment of white southerners

1865: Tenure of Office Act:
Only two ways to remove a cabinet member from office:
-Congress votes
-President that appointed them fires them

Radicals started the Confiscitory act:

-40 acres and a mule from the planters to the slave that is free

-Amendments 14 and 15 passed

Freedmen's bureau:

-Free comforts/Necessities for free black people
-Southern white people hated this

Impeachment:
-Johnson fires the Secretary of War
-Radicals try to push him out of congress and place Thaddeus Stevens in the presidency

-Failed by one radical senate vote

-Obvious that he will not be elected for a second term.

Grant Presidency: 1869-1877
-Tried to end the trials of the south
-Was a somewhat incompetent president

-Could not command militarily.

Reconstruction Act: No confederate officer or sympathizer can hold office.

-Carpetbaggers

-Northerners who got elected

Congress grew tired of reconstruction; it was an old issue.

-Supreme Court passed the enforcements of the 14th and 15th amendments to the states

-Jim Crow laws passed; the whites had no more incentive to assist the Black people live

Scandals:
Black Friday: Speculators corner the gold market and it ruins the economy
Credit Mobilier: Phantom bank account defrauds funds of over $150 million to 'build a railroad' r

New Economic Beginnings:
-Homestead Act, 1862: $5 for 40 acres
-Morrell land college act: Grants for agricultural research universities

-Pacific Railway Act: Charter for Railroad

West: -Chinese Immgrants

-Eastern trade opened with Gunboat Diplomacy

Industrialists:

-Job Creators
-Immigrant Workers

-Supply and demand

B and O Rail Road: West Virginia

-100 workers killed in strike

-2/3 American RailCorps affected

Knights Of Labor:
-1.3 million by 1800

-Pushed for 10 hour work day and Minimum Wage

American Railway Union:
-Formed after B and O strike

-Succeeded in the Pullman Strike

American Federation Of Labor: 1886

-Focused on the skilled workers

-Successfully created a middle class

Haymarket Riot, Chicago:

-Bomb set off

-Caused a Red Scare

-8 Known Anarchist leaders were tried and found guilty

-Did it scare people from joining unions?

Twain Coins the 'Gilded Age' to be 1870-1900: Looks good, bad interior.

-Communicated to immigrants mainly through Political Cartoons; They can't read

-Henry George publishes Progress And Poverty; saying the wealth gap is too large

-Supreme Court ruled that corporations are people too

Boss Tweed:

Dominated NYC area; head of Democratic Party.

1872: China Exclusion Act: Excludes chinese immigration

The Coinage Acts/Debate/Conflict/Kerfuffle/Shit-Fest

-Coin Act, 1873: Coin Act: Back on gold standard.

-Bland-Allison Act: Back on Bimetallic.

-Comstock Lode:

-Worlds largest vein of silver

-Devalued currency

-Free Coinage of silver:

-Desired by farmers with little economic knowledge

-Petitioned for by silver miners to reduce surplus

-Sherman Silver Purchase Act; 1890

Monopolies: Taking the country for themselves

-Broken by the Sherman Anti Trust act

-"Anything that works against trade is illegal".

-Used against Unions and Strikers

-Fragmentation of the USA; Economically and Politically

Agriculture:

-25% of the Population

-No workers unions; not Industrialists or Workers. No belonging

-Oliver Kelly forms The Grange; Patrons of Husbandry

-Pool food and limit supply to get what they want

-Get lower freight rates

-Interstate Commerce Commission's formed: (ICC)

-1877

-Stop RR from changing rates randomly; required 6 months advanced notice

-Had no power; only a watchdog
-Little was stopped, but shows that the Farmers wanted their intrests met

Depression of 1893: Was the deepest depression percentage wise

-4 Years long; stopped by the Klondike Gold Rush

-Used by the populist party in their religious arguments

Oklahoma Territory opens:

-Subsidizing of the west is closed with the frontier

-$20 for 160 acres; same as with LA territories

-Congress officially states they are going to focus on fixing the problems of the America that is already established

Tom Johnson: Mayor of Cleveland

-City Beautiful movement

-Destroy poverty; attack the ghettos

Alfred Thayer Mahan: Published On the importance of sea power in history;
-Navy was obsolete

-Gov. Starts to build more modern ships

Josiah Strong: Presents Missionary Darwinism

-Spread our faith and lifestyle

-Spreads Jingoism

William Jennings Bryan:

-Cowardly Lion

-Wins populist and Democratic vote

-In the 1890s, people did not want an empire.

Anti-Imperialist league: Stay out of foreign affairs

-Democrats

Mckinley and Hannah: Republicans

-Party of Industry

-Not a good speaker opposed to WJB

The Hawaiian Revolution: 1893

-Islands united in 1810

-David Kalakaua elected in 1872

-Reciprocity Treaty signed in 1875

-Bayonet Constitution gave White Business main voice; 1887

-Lorrin Thurston and the Hawaiian league overthrow Queen Liliuokalani in 1893

Spanish American war: Contributors:
-First revolts of the Cubans in 1868-1870

-More Revolution in the 1890s

-General Valeriano Weyler and his Reconcentration policy

Catalysts to war; 1898:

-USS Maine sinks in Havana Harbor

-100+ men die; Spanish are blamed

March-October of 1898:

-We recommend they get out of cuba

-Teller Amendment states that we did not want to annex cuba

The newspapers:

-Claimed war

-Took the pictures and 'gave the people the war' in Cuba

May 1, 1898: War

-Spanish fleet in Manila harbor; 15 ships destroyed

-40 Americans/Filipinos lost, 4000 Spanish Lost

-Cease Fire and Treaty Of Paris in December

Economic Challenges:

-Surplus of Grain

-Farmers advocated for expansion

Tariffs and Property:

-Paid mostly by farmers; almost none by Industrialists

-An issue that the poor are taxed but the rich are not

Pendleton Act; 1883:

-Secret service is part of the Treasury

-Mckinley is Assassinated in 1900; Theodore Roosevelt is president

-Roosevelt makes the Roosevelt Corollary; addition to the Monroe Doctrine

Orville Platt; the Platt Amendment:

-We can interfere in cuba

Challenges: Are we the Constable of the Caribbean, or are we the Bully of the Caribbean?

Roosevelt Administration:

-Active Presidency

-Exercised massive executive power

-Square Deal: Protect the common people opposed to the rich

Unit 5

Progressivism:

-Break reforms into a smaller set

Desires of the Progressives:

-Politics more democratic

-Industry less exploitive

-Break unfair business practices

Clayton Act: Excludes unions from anti-trust acts; called the 'Magna Carta of labor' (1914)

-Look with optimism at a better future to be created within their generation

William H. Taft:

-Support from T.R.

-Did much more than was seen

-Given little credit for the country's progress as caused by his administration

Legislative Reform under Taft:

-More moral in his questions

-Failed moral diplomacy

-Not good with international issues

Taft: Main issue: Was not Roosevelt

-Did things behind the scenes

-Taft did things; Wilson got the credit

-People wanted the Charisma of Roosevelt

-More of a progressive

Progressives:

-Tariffs wearing out

Mann Act: State law cannot prosecute other states' laws

Payne Aldrich Act: Amended the bill to be a protective tariff

TR and Taft go against each other; Wilson is elected by a massive margin

-Woodrow Wilson; 'The new freedom'

International Issues:

Mexico: Financial Apocalypse

-Found Oil

-Porfirio Diaz; took over in a military dictatorship

-Insurrection in 1911; succeeds and replaces him with Francisco Madero; but was assassinated by Diaz's generals

Arms Crisis:

-Huertas replaced Madero

-Purchased arms, traded for oil

-Admiral Mayo blockaded the port to stop the shipment

The Tampico Incident: April 10, 1914

-Soldiers in a bar from the US talk shit about the government

-Arrested. Sigh.

-South American nations intervene in the crisis:

Agreement:

-Independence from America, no weapons, Huertas will step down.

(Wilson's friends come back into office in Mexico)

Europe is a Tinderbox:

-Balkan states are a crossroads

-Slovaks, Turks, Muslims, Romani, etc... All mixed

-All want independance

June 21, 1914:

-Franz Ferdinand went to Ciervo for Diplomacy and leisure

-Well received for 1 week

June 28, 1914:

-Paraded to city hall to talk with mayor

-Gavrilo Princeps wanted glory in his Black Hand organization

-Failed in the Parade assassination attempt

-Shot the car when it made a wrong turn while going back to visit people hurt in the other attacks

Austria-Hungary invades Russia-Backed Serbia

-System of Alliances involved

-Germany declared war

Germany becomes the scapegoat; declared war first.

-Battle of the Somme; 1.3 million deaths

-Gas made a debut

Business booms in the United States:

-Sold weapons and supplies for war

-92% for Allies, 8% for the 'Axis'

-Technically neutral

5:5:3 Agreement: 1920-1921: 5 battleships for America and Britain; 3 for France; 1 for Japan.

Breun-Kellogg pact; 1928
-Renounced war as a political illegality

Montevideo doctrine:
-Interventionism is over
-"Good neighbor" policies
-OAS; Organization of American States
-Similar to league of nations
-Cuba and Philippines are independent

-Need to ask for help

Pan Americanism:

-Support countries economically

-Private Investment helps economies in Central/South america

-These countries started to have independent ideals

Italy becomes Fascist:
-Mussolini
-Invades Libya and Ethiopia
-Haile Selassie's warning to the LON;
-Ethiopian man
-Today it is Ethiopia; tomorrow it may be you
1923: Hitler implemented the Bierhaul Kul.
-Arrested for 10 months
-Wrote his book; how germany could rise to power
-Some people wanted to sabotage that; Jews, Czechs, etc.

Economic Pressures inbetween the wars:

-Paid Germany their war debts

-Used the money to buy our stuff.

-Effectively buying stuff from ourselves

Great Depression:
-Boom of wealth
-All on paper
-All based on credit
-Consumerism; Confidence; Credit

-Happened as the world came out of their depression

1933-1947: Official policy is that we will not intervene in other's affairs unless asked

America First committee;
-Total isolationism
-No trade with countries at war

Neo Isolationism:

-No political involvement

-Military control of the world through policies

Gerald Nigh: US Senate, IS
-Nigh Committee
-Don't pursue policies that benefit business over people
-WWI, businesses profited off of human suffering

The Neutrality Acts:
1. -Invasion of Ethiopia
-Declared that we will not provide support to any belligerent countries
-ANY fighting countries; Gives strong countries a big advantage

2. -Spanish civil war
-Fascism rises (36-39)
-Declared that no citizens can visit a belligerent country

3. -Invasion of Poland; 1939
-No allegiance with either the Allies or the Axis

Quarantine the Aggressors:
-90% want to live in peace; 10% want to disrupt
-"Our duty to quarantine these aggressive countries"
-1937
-No names stated; just implied

WWII: Issues with Neutrality
-Declared illegal to support one side
-Neutrality or recovery?

Building US defenses:
-Sec of state Cordell
-Defence spending goes up
Cash and Carry Policy:

-Countries can bring their ships over and pay with cash

-They can bring our surplus home

Lend/Lease act:
-Lend our surplus of Destroyers
-Gained access to bases all over the world
-Industry starts to prep
-Embargo of raw materials of Japan
-90% of oil supply gone
-Good Neighbor policy

The battle of the Atlantic:
-Axis raids among American and British coasts
-Starve out england

1942:
-Go after North Africa
-Secure Oil Fields
-Protect Stalingrad's southern flank

June 4, 1944:
-Rome is liberated
-Resistance fighters join the allies

Europe First strategy:
-Accomplish the europe war
-Island Hopping developed in the pacific

VE day; May 8, 1945
-Germany stops fighting
-Stalin is officially informed about the Atomic Bomb
-He knew already
-Evidence suggests he knew before Truman

World War II Changed the world:
-Shared Sacrifice
-Social change in women's rights and placements
-Citizens at war
-War bonds
-Rationing

Henry Morgenthau
-Cost Plus system
-Government would pay any production cost
-Guarantee 1% profits
-Highly Controversial
-Wildcat Strikes
-Punch time card, stop working and strike

Women at War:

-Women's Army Corps
-Rosie the Riveter
-Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service (Nursing corps)

Minorities at war:

-Zoot-Suit riots
-American sailors prejudice against migrant workers
-LA and San Diego
-A. Phillip Randolph: March on DC
-Postpone the march because of Pearl Harbor
-Double V Campaign (Victory against Fascism and discrimination)
-Executive Order 8802: Ends discrimination in Department Of Defense hiring

Japanese-Americans during the war:
-Executive Order 9066
-Internment of Japanese-Americans

PostWar America:
The dream in the 40s and 50s

Redefining our philosophy on world policy:
-Embraced becoming a world power
-Nuclear Bombs are ultimate trump card

Returning vets facing housing shortage:
-GI bill
-Government subsidized mortgages
-University education

-Suburbs made to counteract housing shortage
-New style of life; New american dream

Redefining the family?
-Return to traditional roles?

-More children
-Conflicts emerge when women want to stay in the workforce
-Divorce rates surged

Fear of the depression:
-Massive increase in employment

-Lots of saved money; now could be spent

-Consumer products available again

-Minor slowdown; then boom

Building, Shipping, Heating: Workers strike
-Wanted higher wages based on the corporations' wealth
-4.5 million workers go on strike

-About 10% of working class is not working

Truman:

-Threatened to draft striking workers
-Task recruits to work in factories

-Workers returned to their jobs: Truman supports the Industrialists

The United Nations:

-UN Charter signed in 1945 to replace LON

-5 Key Power Countries in executive, ultimate control

-Russia, China, USA, England, France

-Eastern Europe is controlled by soviets

-Greece and Turkey: Economic panic

-Truman Doctrine: We will fight communism wherever they find it

The berlin crisis:
-East berlin is rebuilt; to encourage others to follow the soviet system

-West berlin is isolated; attempted to starve them

-Airlifted food into the city; quickly land, drop and flee; due to airports being on the border

Yugoslavia: Nonaligned
-Showed the US that we need to defend our democratic friends

-One base put there; NATO formed

-Formed a military force

Asia:
-Long March; by Mao

-Mao recruits peasants in china to fight for communism

-China falls to communism

America: 2nd Red Scare
-Target non-conformists

-Label them as Communists

Truman:
-Split the party when he desegregated the military

-Black vote decided the election

The challenge of Korea:
-Borders the Soviet Union AND China

-MaCarthur wanted to invade and destroy

-Made Truman look bad: Truman fired him

-Is he a communist?! (Agh.)

-Truman's Popularity: 23%

Eisenhower's America: Supreme Commander of all Allied forces

-Small-Government Republicans: Created by Eisenhower

-Questioned the New Deal as an overextension

Beginning of the Arms Race:
-Hydrogen-Bombs

-Dwarfed the Hiroshima bomb; 67x stronger

-Made in 1952

-CIA created in 1954 to fight against Communism

-Developing places in the world

-Middle east
-Iran tried to nationalize oil fields and gain wealth against English

-We maintained the Totalitarian Monarchy

Latin America: Guatemala
-Free market economics

-Sell land to anyone. Clearly Communism

-CIA accuses the Democratically Elected Champion; and he is overthrown

-He was replaced by a totalitarian ruler; Claimed to be democratic NOW.

Crises in America:

-Little Rock Crisis: Orville Faubus
-Black students wanted to go to the white school for a better education

-Barred from the school; not allowed in for almost a week

-NAACP, SCLU; etc. Called in

-Riots; and Faubus called the National Guard

-Dwight Eisenhower sends 5000 members of the 101st Airborne to send them to school

-Crisis averted. Lol.

-Brown V Board Of Education: 9-0 unanimous decision

-Segregation now illegal; except in Private sector

-Public is illegal

-Private corps. can discriminate/segregate all they want
-Rosa Parks gave birth to SCU; Leader MLK jr.

-Bus boycott; nearly bankrupted the bus company

-Desegregation in the south!

-The missile gap
-Sputnik I; "The Major Accomplishment"

-Schedule: Included Little Rock, AS. Drawing attention to the divides in the US
-Message to the world: Do you want their flawed system, or our Integrated system?

-STEM programs created; thanks to Eisenhower

-Eisenhower's Rocky Finish
-U2 spy plane shot down

-Been spying on USSR for many years
-No proof; no legible photographic evidence

-Engine problem resulted in lower altitude; shot down

-Caught red-handed with film, visible Decal in photos; and pilot's statement

The Kennedy years: 1961-1963

-Cuban Missile Crisis

-Handled well; very sensitive in the UN

Bay of Pigs:

-No idea what he was doing

-Stand down the air force; so the Invasion totally failed

-Pushed into the arms of the USSR
-Formed the Cuban Missile Crisis

-Khrushchev is credited with solving it in backing down

-Kennedy was granted a win

American "Royalty"?

-Press loved Kennedy

-He used his family as an advertising piece

New Talent:

-MacNamara as Sec. Of Defense

-RFK as Attorney General

June 11, 1963: Kennedy declares war on poverty

-Peace Corps created

-Diplomatic war

Domestic Policy:

-New Frontier

-Lower the Income Taxes; close all tax loopholes

-Conflict with Steel Industry; Threatened to open to the world for steel

Civil Rights: Freedom Riders

-Sit-ins; March On Washington, 8/1963

-James Meredith and Ole Miss; Desegregated

JFK is Assassinated in November of 1963

-Johnson is inaugurated

-Civil Rights Champion from Texas

Civil Rights Bill:

-Proposed that Education be nondiscriminatory

-57 Day Filibuster; One speech lasted 23 hours

Election:

-Goldwater V Johnson

-Goldwater was skilled at language; the public trusted Johnson

-One commercial broke the stalemate; considered dirty tactics by the Republicans.

Johnson's First Term:
-Clarified that it was not his term

-Emulated Kennedy

-Social Security and Medicare: For the Elderly

-Savings Account made by the Fed

-Deposited and withdrawn later

-Elementary & Secondary Education Act; 1965

-Schools with impoverished students receive support from the Fed

-Free and Reduced lunch program

-Established US Department of Education

-Protecting and Informing the public:

-Ralph Nader; Unsafe at any speed.

-The Automotive Industry is cutting corners

-Consumer Protection Agency made; to protect the consumer from Corporate

-PBS: National Arts Subsidizing:

-Unbiased reporting

-Federally Funded

Malcolm X:

-Islam

-Violent to peaceful after Mecca

-Assassinated in 65 by Nation of Islam

The Political and Social Impact of the Vietnam War:

1968-1973:

Why have the Resolution?

-Wiggle Room

-All-win situation no matter it's effects

-No escalation until it's needed

For:

-Our ship was attacked

-Stop Communism

-Spread Democracy

Against:

-American Men at risk

-Shaky Cause

Operation: Rolling Thunder

-Search And Destroy

-Bombs and going through the jungle

The Media:

-Televised War

-Soldiers testified that they had no idea what they were fighting for

The Tet Offensive:

January, 1968:

-100 spots simultaneously

-Vietnamese New Year's cease fire agreement

My Lai Massacre: March 16, 1968

-Showed how desperate we were to find VC

-400+ killed due to thought of existence of 1 VC officer

-Televised and Photographed; Showed young people at home the true evils

The Nixon Presidency: 1979-1974

Stagflation:

-GDP, Unemployment, Corporate Earnings, Inflation: All unfixable for fear of worsening the others

OPEC: Embargo to the US on oil

-Crippled the economy

-Hurt the Stagflation

-Inflation goes way up

-Social Change is massive: Less american cars, more foriegn cars

A policy Reversal: 1972

-Nixon goes to china!

-Nobody doubts his anti-communist credentials

-Opened trade to China; world's largest market

Russia:

-June of 1972

-ABM treaty signed in 1972

-SALT I Signed in 1974

-Trade opened; inspection missions sent

-Some Soviet Union troops training in NATO

Watergate:

-Plumbers tried to stop the leaks from the white house

-Broke in to the Democratic Ntl. HQ

-Stole documents

-Caught; All government officials, all with same amount of money in their pockets

-Looks better over time; more popular among the non-baby boomer generation

-Democrats looked into it to smear a Popular president

Nixon Steps Down over the Coverup

-Ford brought in as president

-Look after Michigan for the auto industry

-Asian and European cars

-Hurts MI

-Ford pardons Nixon

Ford's Domestic Policy:

-Watergate and Financial Crisis Dominated the presidency

-Declared inflation 'Public enemy number 1'

-Open individual savings accounts

-Reduce spending

-Plant vegetable gardens? (Conservation)

Ford's Foreign policy:

-Paris Peace Accords: 1973-75: Leaving Vietnam

-Promised to leave Saigon alone

-Willing to divide Vietnam permanently

-We fought on the wrong side.

-Helsinki accords: 1975
-Met with Communist leaders

-Coexist and trade

The election of 1976:

-Bicentennial year; looking to celebrate

-Gerald Ford broke an earlier promise and decided to run for election

Gerald and Jimmy Carter: Election:

-Jimmy Carter gave an interview in Playboy

-Said things he should not have said

Gerald:

-Trips and falls down AF1

-Chevy Chase on Saturday Night Live makes fun of him; makes him look like a bumbling idiot to younger people

Carter Wins:

-Swore to never tell a lie to the american people

-Most moral of our presidents

-Ran as an outsider

The Carter Administration:

-Flexibility

-One policy that didn't work; changes it: Considered to be incompetent

National Energy Act:

-Tax on Gas Guzzling cars

-Proposed energy independence

-Energy Policy: declared the Moral Equivalent of War. (MEOW)

-All confidence in the administration is lost

3 Mile Island:

-Harrisburg PA

-Minor meltdown that happened to occur 2 weeks after the movie 'China Syndrome's release

-No new reactors made until 2009

The Middle East Crisis:

-Egypt recognizes Israel as a state

-Met and discussed the Camp David Accords on Carter's retreat

Iran Hostage Crisis:

-Iranian Students seized the American Embassy

-11 Released; 52 held

-First Attempt was denied by carter; failed with 8 men dead

-Killer Rabbit sketch from Monty Python: Carter backing off from the rabbit in the swamp

-'Robin's men bravely ran away'

The Presidential Debate of 1980:

-Socially; Win

-Economic, Military or Political: Failure

Reagan wins
-Hostages released from Iran; Carter did it and gave the credit to reagan

Reagan and the Soviet Union:

-Strategic Defense Initiative: 1981-?

-"The evil empire" speech, 1983

-Challenged the soviet union; 2 summit meetings between Reagan and Gorbachev

-Visit to berlin: June 12, 1987

Optimism:

-Never talked about negatives

-Always believed in the morning of America; just have to believe it.

-Deficit: 200 million

-From 900 billion to 3-4 trillion: most in defense spending

-EPA, etc. Social Programs are devastative

Iran-Contra Affair:

-7 Americans held hostage by Lebanese people backed by Iran

-Violated the law of selling weapons to Iran

-Egypt to Israel to Iran

-Support the Nicaraguan Revolution

What did he know and when did he know it?

Bush: What did he know and when did he know it?

-Up for election

-VS Dukakis. Small in size; and makes mistakes

Bush is Elected; 1988

-"Read My Lips: No new taxes." (Raised existing taxes larger than ever)

-1987: Stock Market dropped 500 points; 1/5th of wealth

-Yuppies: Young investors

-Caused unpredictability in Stock Market

S&Ls: Saving and loans

-Lots of depositors

-CEOs got greedy and loaned too much

-FDIC bailed out depositors about 5 Billion Dollars

An Environmental Disaster:

-Oil Spill occurs on the Alaskan Wildlife Reserve

-Killed the deregulation of energy idea

-Promoted clean energy; symbolic due to previously untouched wildlife

December 1991: CNN covers the USSR's disintegration

-Bush gets credit

-90% Approval

Tiananmen Square; 1989:

-Students protest

-Crushed by tanks

-Showed that Students, (A student) can stop the might of the Chinese Army

The First persian gulf war

-8/90: Iraq led by Saddam Hussein

-Oil rich Kuwait is invaded; Iraq wants the money: Kuwait used to be part of Iraq

-UN stepped in; 400 US deaths

Reagan and his policies:

-Bypassed the Republicans; talked with democrat; Tim O'neil

-Spend on defense, cut on social programs

George HW VS Reagan:

-Mediator VS Go and do it

-Build support first VS Ultimatums

-George HW Bush consults with the UN and national leaders about Hussein

-Leave him in charge

-Only stable thing in the Middle East

Economic Policies:

-Natural ups and downs; when artificially increased or shrunk, next crash is worse

-Bush's economic approval rating is low

-High polls for Foreign Policy

Clinton:

-Baby-Boomer, poor family

-Mother depended on Government Assistance

-Preached the economy; claimed the economy was all of the problems

-Could not go against Bush in foreign policy

-The statement: It's the economy, stupid

-Won him much support due to his focus on the economy