p style="margin-bottom: .11in; line-height: 108%;"br /br /p
p style="margin-bottom: .11in; line-height: 108%;"Shakespeare's The Tempest as a Post-Colonial Text/p
p style="margin-bottom: .11in; line-height: 108%;"Made by:/p
p style="margin-bottom: .11in; line-height: 108%;"Ghazi Salman/p
p style="margin-bottom: .11in; line-height: 108%;"Saleh Hazeem/p
p style="margin-bottom: .11in; line-height: 108%;"Mahmoud Dwikat/p
p style="margin-bottom: .11in; line-height: 108%;"Supervised by: Dr. Bilal Hamamra/p
p style="margin-bottom: .11in; line-height: 108%;"br /br /p
p style="margin-bottom: .11in; line-height: 108%;"br /br /p
p style="margin-bottom: .11in; line-height: 108%;"Al-Najah National University/p
p style="margin-bottom: .11in; line-height: 108%;"May, 2019/p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"The Tempest as a Postcolonial Discourse/p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"br /br /p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"Abstract/p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; border-top: none; border-bottom: 1.5pt solid #00000a; border-left: none; border-right: none; line-height: 115%; padding: 0in 0in .01in 0in;"Inspired by Edward Said's theories of orientalism and postcolonialism, this article examines the postcolonial discourse embodied in Shakespeare's The Tempest. We argue that the characters such as Caliban and Ariel are dehumanized by Prospero as the main source of colonization and Miranda as a marginal colonizer. In addition to putting this play alongside its historical context, we wrench it out of its context so as to analyze it from present affairs. This research mainly focused on the postcolonial theory and its application on analyzing literature. Correspondingly, the research aims at interpreting the play from a postcolonial perspective in two aspects that are language as a tool of colonialization and the relationship between the two sides of the colonial process, the colonized and the colonizer. Our analysis also inspects the effects of the colonization process in regards of dehumanization and persecution of the colonized. Moreover, our interpretation portrays the atmosphere of dominance that is imposed by the colonizers. The data is collected and selected by intensive reading of articles, journals, dissertations, and academic papers that pinpoint directly into the subject matter. Eventually, the research concludes that, at first, the language of the colonizer, Prospero, is the basic dominant asset for controlling other characters. Moreover, the colonizers attempts to civilize the colonized by language are thwarted and backfired. The research also found that the play has different types of the colonized. The first type is Caliban, who has a rebellious resistance over the different forms of colonization; cultural, lingual, and physical. The other type is Ariel, who was submissive and subjected to Prospero's exploitation. Moreover, the research showed that the colonized persist to execute Prospero's commands because of their fear of his violence and power which they think it can tear them apart./p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"Keywords: post-colonialism, The Tempest, Caliban, Ariel, Prospero, civilization, dehumanization, the colonized, the colonizer, dominance./p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"br /br /p
p style="margin-bottom: .11in; line-height: 108%;"Table of Contentsbr /br /br /p
p style="margin-bottom: .11in; line-height: 108%;"Abstractbr /br /br /br /p
p style="margin-bottom: .11in; line-height: 108%;"Introductionbr /br /br /br /p
p style="margin-bottom: .11in; line-height: 108%;"Literature Reviewbr /br /br /br /p
p style="margin-bottom: .11in; line-height: 108%;"Methodologybr /br /br /br /p
p style="margin-bottom: .11in; line-height: 108%;"Discussionbr /br /br /br /p
p style="margin-bottom: .11in; line-height: 108%;"Conclusion/p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"br /br /p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"br /br /p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"br /br /p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"br /br /p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"br /br /p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"br /br /p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"br /br /p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"br /br /p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"1.1 Introduction/p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"Shakespeare's works prefigure the conception and actualization of many theories such as postcolonialism, Imperialism, Marxism and other political or literary movements to reflect and manifest the modern world's formations. Our paper aims at investigating the anticipation of Shakespeare's speculations concerning modernism and post-modernism. This paper specifically studies how The Tempest is read to achieve a postcolonial discourse represented in the characters and the setting. The eloquence of its language and the wide inclusion of many creative devices and ideas of the play helped the critics to analyze it according to different genres such as a pastoral piece of literature that shows the pastoral and the rural dimensions of its settings and themes, a mediaeval romance concerning its supernatural and quest motifs, and a poem that wraps up a transformational processes upon its main characters.( Ray, 2007)/p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"What we specifically investigating is the postcolonial aspects shown in the play. Many previous studies showed the postcolonial critique in The Tempest and they represented the relationship between the colonizer "Prospero and Miranda"and the colonized "Ariel, Caliban" (Cuesta, 2005). Cuesta also argues that Prospero is the usurper of the island which rightfully belongs to Caliban after the death of his mother Sycorax who was the ruler of the land. Furthermore, Skura(1989) marked Prospero is close to be called as a British colonizer who persecutes the different types of the colonized represented in the individuality of the indigenous inhabitants such as Caliban, and Ariel( Skura, 1989)./p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"br /br /p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"Literature Review/p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"2.1. Postcolonial theory/p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;""Post-colonialism is intellectual discourse that consists of reactions to, and analysis of, the cultural legacy of colonialism and imperialism." Harald Fischer-Tine./p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"The post-colonial theory has appeared to depict the effects and the plague of what colonialism committed to the Eastern society in terms of culture, language, discourse and issues such as identity (including gender, race, and class), representation, and history because native languages and culture were replaced or superseded by European traditions in colonial societies. In his book Orientalism, the Palestinian American Critic Edward Said addresses the aftermath of the colonial interaction between the West and the East. The post-colonial society became hybrid-cultured that speaks with two tongues and sees with two angles of sight, two different sides, neither Western norEastern or could be both simultaneously. The dilemma of post-colonialism brings about a loss of identity and entity./p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"Edward Said was not the first one to review criticism and denunciation on the Western Orientalism, but his book Orientalism metamorphosed great accounts of the literary fields and stimulated the ground for postcolonial theory. This created an unmatched and unprecedented debate concerning the Academic aspects of both the West and the East alike. (Hamadi, 2014). Said also articulated the relationships between the colonizer and the colonized in relation to some imperialist and colonial discourse. Besides to some views of the cultural domination represented in many aspects including a hybrid consciousness to which Homi Bhabha gave the title of "Hybridity" later on. This double vision shapes a harsh reality upon intellectuals and normal colonized alike. At this regard Said states, "No one can escape dealing with, if not the East/West divi sion, then the North/South one, the have/have-not one, the imperialist/anti-imperialist one, the white/colored one" (Said,p327,1979)./p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"As Sawant displayed, The term "postcolonial" has been substituted around the world in the 70s for the post-independence issues ,some critics as as Bertens and Hanna Issa agree to use imperialism and postcolonialism interchangeably. Post colonialism from the colonized society's point of view is a critical theory which focuses on the colonial experience , semantically post colonialism means something that has a concern only with the national culture after the departure of imperial power such as Nigeria and India in the sense they seem to be formally independent but they are still under the influence of neo-colonialism. They got independence and freedom from the British rule, Colonialism is still ruling their psychology and it is known as neo-colonialism but in actual practice it has to be understood only in reference to colonialism, myth, history, language, landscape, self and others (Sawant, 2011). The postcolonial studies are very important components. It means that the physical area of postcolonial study is wider than any other discipline in literature. Hanna Issa also articulates that Imperialism is just another mask of colonization to achieve an economic domination throughout the country's colonized policy (Issa, 2015)./p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"The postcolonial theory nowadays is a school of thought. It has a very prominent significance in the sense in which it is regarded as an intellectual tool for research and academic critique and that is for its insightful critical strategies, its wide application to culture and society, its global research, its close textual analysis and other applications in which this thought could serve the academic fields (Burney, 2012)./p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"2.2. The Postcolonial Literature/p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"In a broad sense, Postcolonial literature is a critical discourse that reacts to the cultural, social, and economic effects on the colonized. Its main concern is using description and narration, to restore a connection between indigenous people and their homelands. Not to mention, it seeks to affirm the validity and richness of indigenous cultures in order to retrieve the traditions that were degraded under colonialism (Ashcroft, 1989)./p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"Postcolonial literature emerged at the same time colonies were seeking their independence, consequently, it began appearing as a coherent literary movement in the mid-twentieth. Even though the movement was defined through the novel and it was apparently interpreted in Books and novels such as The Wretched of the Earth, The Buddha of Suburbia, and Season of Migration to The North and many other novels, we are going to pinpoint the postcolonial discourse in Drama and Poetry for they are important genres in literature (Golden, 2015)./p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"As it is apparent above, Postcolonial literature is a most predominant type of literature and it has a great appeal. It mostly has to do with many concepts like political, psychological, and cultural and post-structural. Moreover, it highlights a huge assistance in understanding both 'colonizer' and 'colonized' in many concerns like education, geography, and culture./p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"One of the most remarkable pioneers who shed the light on the case of post colonialism is Edward Said who's famous for his book Orientalism. The book's structure boosted the difference between the familiar (Europe, West, "us") and the strange (the Orient, the East, "them")" (span style="background: #ffffff;"Singh, 2004)./span/p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"span style="background: #ffffff;"2.3. Previous Studies/span/p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"span style="background: #ffffff;"Shakespeare's /spanspan style="background: #ffffff;"The Tempest/spanspan style="background: #ffffff;" was read and studied referring to more than one perspective and theory. Our main concern is presenting the postcolonial perspective into reading this play. We can elaborate on this as follows;/span/p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"br /br /p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"span style="background: #ffffff;"2.3.1. The Tempest as a Postcolonial Discourse/span/p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"span style="background: #ffffff;"For its world-wide application, the postcolonial theory was employed as a tool of analysis in numerous literary genres. /spanspan style="background: #ffffff;"The Tempest/spanspan style="background: #ffffff;" articulates a postcolonial discourse in many positions, but it is more apparent in the relationship between Caliban and Prospero. There are some critics who agree to give legitimacy for Caliban's claim over the island./span/p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"span style="background: #ffffff;"Cuesta (2005) manifests the characters of the play as human personalities; she presented Caliban as a manipulative evil while Prospero was highlighted as a usurper of the island alleging that the indigenous inhabitants of the island cannot get benefited by its resources. Moreover, she stated that Stephano and Trinculo are prototypes of the frontier riff-raff; Miranda on the other hand embodies the Anglo-American endeavors to suppress the native Indians and their culture./span/p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"span style="background: #ffffff;"Skura(1989) states that Prospero is seen as a British colonizer who takes over the island; and an intruder whose actions are parallel to the actions of the British colonizer. Ariel and Caliban represent two different types of the "colonized" ; Ariel portrays those who are taken and submissive to the idea of colonialism, while Caliban represents those who are more rebellious and resistant natives in their nature. Skura says "Caliban's childish innocence seems to have been what first attracted Prospero, and now it is Caliban's lawlessness that enrages him." This innocence resulted in Prospero's exploitation of the island and the inhabitants, the spirits and Caliban in this context./span/p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"span style="background: #ffffff;"Methodology/span/p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"span style="background: #ffffff;"This research mainly investigates Shakespeare's work /spanspan style="background: #ffffff;"The Tempest /spanspan style="background: #ffffff;"from a postcolonial perspective. The play was read as a postcolonial text by several critics and researchers; nevertheless, we are basically going to pinpoint the discourse of postcolonialism, dehumanization, and colonialization of the personalities, culture, and language "othering" and to discuss the notions of "Civilization" depicted by the "colonizer" then to relate it to the New World debate of colonialization. Our data was mainly collected and selected by reading detailed dissertations, academic journal articles, critical papers, and literary books that touch upon the application of the postcolonial theory on /spanspan style="background: #ffffff;"The Tempest./span/p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"br /br /p
p style="margin-left: .25in; margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"span style="background: #ffffff;"4. Discussion/spanspan style="background: #ffffff;"br /spanbr /br /p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"span style="background: #ffffff;"4.1. Language as a tool of colonization/span/p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"span style="background: #ffffff;"Language is considered as a culture identification marker. Throughout history, almost every "colonizer" had the attempt to change the language of the "colonized". For instance, the colonization of Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia by France had and still has a large impact upon the spoken languages in those countries. Colonization imposes the language of colonizer on the colonized. Language extended its roots profoundly into culture and identity since it serves as a powerful weapon utilized by the colonizer to tame the colonized;/span/p
p style="margin-left: .5in; margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 100%;"span style="background: #ffffff;""/spanspan style="background: #ffffff;"I endow'd thy purposes /spanbr /span style="background: #ffffff;"With words that made them known. But thy vile race,/spanbr /span style="background: #ffffff;"Though thou didst learn, had that in't which/spanbr /span style="background: #ffffff;"good natures/spanbr /span style="background: #ffffff;"Could not abide to be with; therefore wast thou/spanbr /span style="background: #ffffff;"Deservedly confined into this rock,/spanbr /span style="background: #ffffff;"Who hadst deserved more than a prison"(Shakespeare, .15)./span/p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"span style="background: #ffffff;"Prospero shows his superiority over Caliban for teaching him his language so that he can establish a dominant communication to diminish him. In addition, Prospero sees his language as an instrument to civilize and tame Caliban./span/p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"span style="background: #ffffff;"These lines illustrate that the way in which Prospero communicates with Caliban represents the colonizer's attempts to "civilize" the original inhabitants of the island:/span/p
p style="text-indent: .5in; margin-bottom: 0in; line-height: 100%;"span style="background: #ffffff;""I pitied thee, Took pains to make thee speak, taught thee each hour/span/p
p style="text-indent: .5in; margin-bottom: 0in; line-height: 100%;"span style="background: #ffffff;"One thing or other: when thou didst not, savage,/span/p
p style="text-indent: .5in; margin-bottom: 0in; line-height: 100%;"span style="background: #ffffff;"Know thine own meaning, but wouldst gabble like/span/p
p style="text-indent: .5in; margin-bottom: 0in; line-height: 100%;"span style="background: #ffffff;"Athing most brutish, I endow' d thy purposes/span/p
p style="text-indent: .5in; margin-bottom: 0in; line-height: 100%;"span style="background: #ffffff;"With words that made them known" (Shakespeare, .15)./span/p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"span style="background: #ffffff;"The mastery of language gives the colonized, Caliban in this context, the privilege to promote his stature. Frantz Fanon, a French psychiatrist, points out that language is a crucial tool of civilization. Regarding that, Fanon in /spanspan style="background: #ffffff;"Black Skin White Masks /spanspan style="background: #ffffff;"states,/span"To speak a language is to take on a world, a culture. The Antilles Negro who wants to be white will be the whiter as he gains greater mastery of the cultural tool that language is"(Fanon, 2008, P. 64). "The Antilles Negro"span style="background: #ffffff;" can be paralleled with Caliban's character, whereas the "culture" in this situation can parallel the knowledge and the power "magic" Prospero delivered to the island as soon as he trod his feet on in./span/p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"br /br /p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"span style="background: #ffffff;"A counter argument might emerge here. In spite of the claim which states that language is an attempt to civilize the colonized, it may backlash upon the colonizer. For instance, Caliban says,"/spanspan style="background: #ffffff;" You taught me language; and my profit on't/span span style="background: #ffffff;"Is, I know how to curse. The red plague rid you/span span style="background: #ffffff;"For learning me your language!"/spanspan style="background: #ffffff;" (Shakespeare, .15)./spanspan style="background: #ffffff;" In those words, Caliban shows that the attempt to civilize him by Prospero's language was thwarted and reversed. There is a similar context in modern literature; In /spanspan style="background: #ffffff;"Season of Migration to the North/spanspan style="background: #ffffff;", Maxwell Foster-keen addresses Mustafa Sa'eed saying, "You, Mr Sa'eed, are the best example of the fact that our civilizing mission in Africa is of no avail. After all the efforts we've made to educate you, it's as if you'd come out of the jungle for the first time" (Salih, 1967,P.94). This is an evident attempt to normalize Mustafa Sa'eed to be their ambassador in Africa. Here, Sa'eed portrays the same image that Caliban depicts./span/p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"span style="background: #ffffff;"4.2. The colonizer and the colonized/span/p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"span style="background: #ffffff;"There are different and miscellaneous types of the process of colonization that embodied throughout the play. The only colonizers were Prospero and his daughter Miranda. The other characters, such as Caliban, Ariel, and Ferdinand, experienced the trauma of colonization./span/p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"span style="background: #ffffff;"Prospero/span/p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"span style="background: #ffffff;"The protagonist Prospero can be seen as an embodiment of many diverse forms of colonization. Prospero is the ultimate dominant protagonist in the play. Prospero's character, deeds, logic and the manner by which he treats the indigenous people mirrors the colonizer's frame of mind. His magical power and supernatural art emphasize the oppression of Caliban, yet in addition requests the enslavement of a spirit called Ariel to execute his supernatural plots cunningly. Prospero is an invader who subjugates Caliban who was the owner of the island before Prospero's arrival. Prospero seizes the sources of the land, sets up new system, and positions himself as the leader. According to post-colonialism, Caliban represents the colonized who is enslaved by the intruder. Shakespeare portrayed Caliban as a deformed and monstrous being; nonetheless, some post-colonial theorists humanize him and juxtapose him with a human being who was exposed to a form of colonial domination like any colonized nation. on this regard, Prospero is seen as a colonizer who dehumanizes the inhabitants of the island represented in Caliban's character /spanspan style="background: #ffffff;"(Sadeghi, Royanian, 2014)./span/p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"span style="background: #ffffff;"Sadeghi and Royanian also believe that Prospero's description of Caliban suggests a dehumanization discourse rendered in his manner of addressing Caliban using offensive words to construct an image of a demon-shaped creature."A freckled whelp hag-born_ not honor'd with/ A human shape" (Shakespeare, . 13)./span/p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"span style="background: #ffffff;"Miranda/span/p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"span style="background: #ffffff;"Miranda also practiced colonization. But, the difference between the daughter and the father is that she persecuted Caliban merely. While on the other hand, she acts nicely with Ferdinand and falls in love with him. She does not hide her sympathy upon Ferdinand despite her father's order neither to talk nor to see him. Prospero speaks ungallantly and mockingly with Ferdinand. "/spanspan style="background: #ffffff;"I fear you have done yourself some wrong: a word." Miranda replies mercifully:/span/p
p style="margin-left: .5in; margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"span style="background: #ffffff;""Why speaks my father so ungently? Thisbr /Is the third man that e'er I saw, the firstbr /That e'er I sigh'd for: pity move my fatherbr /To be inclined my way!"(Shakespeare, I,II,18)./span/p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"span style="background: #ffffff;"Caliban was exposed to Miranda's oppression and treated as if he is less than human. He was accused of taking Miranda's honor and besmirch her reputation by Prospero and his /Prospero says:/span/p
p style="margin-left: .5in; margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"span style="background: #ffffff;"br /"Thou most lying slave,br /Whom stripes may move, not kindness! I have used thee,br /Filth as thou art, with human care, and lodged theebr /In mine own cell, till thou didst seek to violatebr /The honour of my child"(Shakespeare, I,II,15)/span/p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"span style="background: #ffffff;"Then Miranda takes the turn of the colonizer when calling Caliban "Villain" and keeps on when saying: "/spanspan style="background: #ffffff;"Abhorred slave, which any print of goodness wilt not take." This illustrates how Miranda is influenced by the attitude of her father, to bear in mind that she only enslaved Caliban since Prospero initiated that Caliban is a snide creature, whereas she showed affections towards Ferdinand as a man of manners and grace. This could shows that colonization may be transmitted into other generations just because they see their ancestors do so./span/p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"br /br /p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"span style="background: #ffffff;"Caliban and Ariel/span/p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"span style="background: #ffffff;"Shakespeare portrayed different types of the colonized in his play. Caliban and Ariel were the most prominent characters to be undergone colonization. As Skura states that Ariel was submissive and compliant to Prospero while Caliban was rebellious in nature. Caliban was plotting with Stephano and Trinculo against Prospero to kill him while he is asleep. Furthermore, Caliban misused Prospero's language. He also claimed the island to be his;/span/p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"span style="background: #ffffff;""/spanspan style="background: #ffffff;"I must eat my dinner./spanbr /span style="background: #ffffff;"This island's mine, by Sycorax my mother,/spanbr /span style="background: #ffffff;"Which thou takest from me. When thou camest first,/spanbr /span style="background: #ffffff;"Thou strokedst me and madest much of me, wouldst give me/spanbr /span style="background: #ffffff;"Water with berries in't, and teach me how/spanbr /span style="background: #ffffff;"To name the bigger light, and how the less,/spanbr /span style="background: #ffffff;"That burn by day and night: and then I loved thee/spanbr /span style="background: #ffffff;"And show'd thee all the qualities o' the isle,/spanbr /span style="background: #ffffff;"The fresh springs, brine-pits, barren place and fertile:/spanbr /span style="background: #ffffff;"Cursed be I that did so! All the charms/spanbr /span style="background: #ffffff;"Of Sycorax, toads, beetles, bats, light on you!/spanbr /span style="background: #ffffff;"For I am all the subjects that you have,/spanbr /span style="background: #ffffff;"Which first was mine own king: and here you sty me/spanbr /span style="background: #ffffff;"In this hard rock, whiles you do keep from me/spanbr /span style="background: #ffffff;"The rest o' the island" (Shakespeare, I, II, 18)./span/p
p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"span style="background: #ffffff;"As many experiences of the colonized , Caliban thought good of the colonizer "Prospero" at the very beginning, The colonizers of Asia and Africa ,especially Britain and France, claimed to be helping the original inhabitants of the land to mine its resources and get benefited of their cultural and material skills. Hence, they welcomed them just like Caliban did with Prospero. When he realized that Prospero's exploitation of the island and the ill-treatment projected upon him, Caliban, as Ishfaq Bhat states, "Caliban scolds himself for trusting Prospero and letting him know all the secrets of the land. By using the knowledge that he gained in the company of Caliban, Prospero enslaves Caliban and after making him a slave, he ill-treats him" (Bhat, 2007, P.32). The ill-treatment and the deception Caliban was exposed to had led him to look at Stephano and Trinculo as new masters of the island conditioned by assisting him to destroy Prospero. As soon as he hears Stephano planning to usurp the island from Prospero, he asserts that he is ready to kneel to him and show him the island's qualities despite the fact that Stephano was calling him "Four legs Monster./span/p
p style="margin-bottom: 0in; line-height: 100%;"span style="background: #ffffff;""I'll show thee the best springs; I'll pluck thee/span/p
p style="margin-bottom: 0in; line-height: 100%;"span style="background: #ffffff;"berries;/span/p
p style="margin-bottom: 0in; line-height: 100%;"span style="background: #ffffff;"I'll fish for thee and get thee wood enough./span/p
p style="margin-bottom: 0in; line-height: 100%;"span style="background: #ffffff;"A plague upon the tyrant that I serve!/span/p
p style="margin-bottom: 0in; line-height: 100%;"span style="background: #ffffff;"I'll bear him no more sticks, but follow thee,/span/p
p style="margin-bottom: 0in; line-height: 100%;"span style="background: #ffffff;"Thou wondrous man"(Shakespeare, III,I, 33)./span/p
p style="margin-bottom: 0in; line-height: 100%;"span style="background: #ffffff;"Unlike Caliban, Ariel thanks Prospero and addressees him submissively in many occasions throughout the play. He keeps revering Prospero with respectful titles. As shown in the play, Ariel executes Prospero's commands under the influence of fear and not respect. This is because he is aware of the fact that if he refuses to carry out Prospero's will, he will encounter severe consequences and punishments. In this regard, Gordon states, "Prospero's version of events also influences our understanding of Ariel, making us aware of Ariel's painful imprisonment in a 'cloven pine' ( .277) in a torment 'to lay upon the damn'd' ( .290). This accounts for Ariel's present servitude to Prospero, confirmed in the spirit's first utterance, 'All hail, great master!' " ( .189)./span/p
p style="margin-bottom: 0in; line-height: 100%;"span style="background: #ffffff;"The other colonized, Caliban, represents a contradictory image. He persists to curse and swear Prospero. Besides, he incited Stephano and Trinculo to kill Prospero and usurp the throne from him. Although Caliban is also dominated by Prospero, he does not show gratitude and submission. Unlike Ariel who betrayed his compatriot Caliban when he told Prospero about Caliban's conspiracy to kill him which thwarted Caliban's revolution against the may suggest a controversial question about Ariel's character./span/p
p style="margin-bottom: 0in; line-height: 100%;"span style="background: #ffffff;"CALIBAN: As I told thee before, I am subject to a tyrant, a/span/p
p style="text-indent: .5in; margin-bottom: 0in; line-height: 100%;"span style="background: #ffffff;"sorcerer, that by his cunning hath cheated me of the is-/span/p
p style="text-indent: .5in; margin-bottom: 0in; line-height: 100%;"span style="background: #ffffff;"land./span/p
p style="text-indent: .5in; margin-bottom: 0in; line-height: 100%;"span style="background: #ffffff;"ARIEL: Thou liest.(III, II, 38)./span/p
p style="margin-bottom: 0in; line-height: 100%;"span style="background: #ffffff;"Conclusion/span/p
p style="margin-bottom: 0in; line-height: 115%;"span style="background: #ffffff;"The process of colonization, dehumanization, and the fake claim of civilization are major discourses and critical world debates./spanspan style="background: #ffffff;" The Tempest,/spanspan style="background: #ffffff;" in its dramatization, has miscellaneous and diverse interpretations. This paper sheds the light on the primary phenomena which are directly related to the act of colonization. Many critics adopted the postcolonial approach to embody the psychological and social consequences followed by the colonial actions. Eventually, the research delved into the postcolonial embodiment of the play. This paper majorly inspects the effects of postcolonialism upon the characters and how Shakespeare utilizes that the language is an asset of colonization rather than civilization as the colonizers claim. Since language is considered as a cultural identification marker, Prospero took advantage of Caliban as an ignorant, distorted, and illiterate creature. He taught him his language to civilize him while Caliban backfired a sense of revolutionary objection. The play showed different types of the colonized; Caliban who was rebellious in nature whereas Ariel was too submissive and obsequious. What can possibly differentiate the two colonized is that Caliban's natural rebelliousness is due to the fact that he has nothing to lose at all. He already lost everything; he lost his identity, the ownership of the land, and his communicative language. However, Ariel's subjection to Prospero takes another dimension; his obedience is induced by his fear of losing his freedom perpetually. Finally the research deducted that the conflict between the indigenous inhabitants, Ariel and Caliban, raises a debatable discourse since Ariel's character is too submissive that he betrayed Caliban for the attempts to kill Prospero./span/p
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p style="margin-bottom: .14in; line-height: 115%;"span style="text-decoration: underline;"References/span/p
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