p class="Body" style="margin: 0in 0in 0.0001pt; font-size: 11pt; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue'; border: none;"there's a saying out there that knowledge is power. We can see that literate societies as a whole are more successful and prosperous, especially in this day and age. societies with illiterate populations are easier to control, surpress and manipulate. If this is true equality is an important thing that is driven by accessible reading materials. If materials are equally accssessible then there will be a better leveled playing field and equality would be more widely achieved. This paper will focus on how we should level the playing field for people with reading or print disabilities, and how important it is to measure these variable in terms of this population./p
p class="Body" style="margin: 0in 0in 0.0001pt; font-size: 11pt; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue'; border: none;" according to jingyi li not every country deals with copyright exemption and equal access to books as fairly or thoroughly as every other country. according to Paul Harpur and span lang="FR"Nicolas Suz/spanor for most of human history books have been quite inaccessible to blind people and those who were print disabled. According to span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"Köklü the situation actually hasn't gotten much better, though it has got better. In developed countries blind organizations estimate that 7% of all books are accessible to the blind, and in developing nations sadly only 1 percent of these books are accessible. It is better than nothing, but as we can see the numbers are not really that impressive. /spanaccording to Harpur and Suzor what countries have done is this quick fix and this ad hoc way to address complaints of discrimination. Suzor and Harpur argue that this should not be the exception but the norm or law. because as span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"Köklü points out that this lack of general learning materials can hinder social and cultural involvement by blind people, and it's generally difficult, and in some countries excessively so to access knowledge and blind people would have to overcome a number of difficult obstacles. This causes blind people to be generally and consistently world wide to be very low income. /span according to li some like china have a odd practice of allowing only exemptions if the book is in a brailled out format and does not honor e-text according to li. This can be very difficult because not everyone reads braille and it's a definite skill. indonesia and cameroon for example really ownly has one single sentence in their copyright acts that address this issue. in other words not substancially and probably this is not very well thought out. Li also suggests there are countries that just do not include any notions of these exemptions, which also means that blind people don't have a right to any accessible formats. these countries are afghanistan, egypt, albania, cambodia, and others this is the case. another problem is that countries have disagreements on who these exemptions applied to. If exemptions exists blind people are usually the main group that is mentioned. according to li, however, some allow for people who can not read because of mental disorders such as dyslexia, or physical eye movement problems or handicaps in which they can not use books, etc….. li mentions that some countries only have certain ones, and others have more of these categories. still some only allow blind people to benefit from these exemptions and do not factor in how others also have difficulty reading their books as well. blindness is often defined very narrowly and precisely. the new term now is print disabilities but this does not focus on electronic formats and only addresses printed materials strictly. this strictly limits it to people who really need it not too narrowly defined and missing out some of the populations that would need it and not too widely that all disabled people would enjoy these priveleges, even if they don't have a real problem reading regular books. thus harming the copyright holder./p
p class="Body" style="margin: 0in 0in 0.0001pt; font-size: 11pt; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue'; border: none;" Li also points out not only is the population needing defining but what works. most countries limit it to published works or else it would harm the author and his chances of publishing and profiting from it. it would harm him economically and morally. li goes on to state that if the media was made specifically for the blind then it would not be under excemption so the copyright holder could turn a reasonable proffit otherwise there would be no hope for that. Li goes on to speak about how this is not the only issues when concerning accessibility. accessibility pertains to pricing as well. because of the usual blind person being a very low income person, the prices must be affordable, and there must be some requirements about pricing. a few countries such as Australia, New Zealand, canada, singapore, and the United Kingdom for example have said if the book can't get to the person in a reasonable amount of time or price even in accessible formats then an exemption has to be granted. this is important because a significant level of disabled people live under the poverty line. the panel study of income dynamics in the united States did a research study in the united states and the findings was that 4.9% of the entire population of families is under the poverty line who didn't have a disability. but when it came to people with disabilities 13.2 percent of families with disabilities were under the poverty line, significantly more./p
p class="Body" style="margin: 0in 0in 0.0001pt; font-size: 11pt; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue'; border: none;" li also brings up the idea of audio formats and how some countries don't encourage it at all, while some like sweden is very friendly to it. the United states has permitted it as long as it's not a dramatic piece of work. most countries besides bulgaria and China have laws stating that only nonprofits or non-commercial establishments could produce these materials for the print disabled. some countries are concerned about the authors and require some form of payment or royalties but others allow no notification of the author if it's to benefit print disabled people. Li points out that this is a great start that most countries has these provisions and so that a world wide treaty may be possible. even if the copyright lawss were all over the place and is not at all uniform./p
p class="Body" style="margin: 0in 0in 0.0001pt; font-size: 11pt; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue'; border: none;" According to Harpur and Suzor this may all be well and good but because of the price this access is not equal because it is expensive to produce a book in to accessible formats if one considers all the cost. Only certain text that were popular enough or specially requested would be made in to braille./p
p class="Body" style="margin: 0in 0in 0.0001pt; font-size: 11pt; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue'; border: none;" According to Li Databases and computer programs are not included in this category in any country./p
p class="Body" style="margin: 0in 0in 0.0001pt; font-size: 11pt; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue'; border: none;" there has been other treaties that have included these issues in it but never a one devoted to it until recently. there was the burn convention which establishes that it is okay to make specialized formats for the print disabled. the wct world copyright treaty and trip is similar. but in that they establish a three step test to see if it harms the author. the convention of rights of persons with disabilities helped solidify a human right to access of information especially for blind people. the copyright holder's loss should not be a barrier to accessibility. a standard for copyright was wanted so four latin american country formed the standing committee on copyright. these things lead up to the Marrakesh treaty or the international framework for copyright exceptions and limitations/ according to Li because of all these differences it would be easier and better to have a unifying treaty, but because of it's differences it also took 8 years to hammer out such a treaty. Harpur and Suzor also points out such a treaty will help also in cross border sharing of accessible materials as long as the country was part of the treaty to provide more access world wide and easier and a more efficient system. this treaty also serves as a baseline minimum for exceptions globally to copyright norms. span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"Köklü points out that what has happened after the treaty was past was a very slow going process. as of a year after the treaty was past there was only two countries who ratified it, which were India and El Salvador. the EU has only signed the treaty./span /p
p class="Body" style="margin: 0in 0in 0.0001pt; font-size: 11pt; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue'; border: none;" Because of this progress Harpur and suzor suggests that maybe we should just make ebook libraries which are already in existent accessible. As far as things goes, in the United states, booth points out that through the rehabilitation act that there is already standards to how ebooks and etext is suppose to be accessible. This act requires that the information be readily presentable to everyone especially the print disabled, that it must be operational to the print disabled, that it must be understandable to the person who's operating it, that it's robust in that screen reading sofware can work with it, , and that librarians should know about the sofware out there that could assist their patrons so as to be able to assistt inn may solve a lot of the book famine issues. Harpur and Suzor suggests if there was legislation from the beginning to help with making it accessible from the get go perhaps it would be a non-issue this book famine. according to suzor and harpur there is the technology to read it with so many options in the market. Booth points out that people are already actually reading ebooks and using a wide range of ereaders. booth points to this research which states that 21% of american adults claims that they have read an ebook in the past year in february 2012 which means that people are using these devices and ereading software anyway. thus it is not a stretch to make it accessible so that print disabled people could red it as well, since this technology does and will help them read books./p
p class="Body" style="margin: 0in 0in 0.0001pt; font-size: 11pt; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue'; border: none;" Harpur and Suzor the CRPD states that member states should use as much of the resources they have to help level the playing field as far as resources that are informational, educational, and culturally relevant. this will equal out the playing field in terms of both reading and other things that are not equal for the disabled person such as education. according to Harpur and suzor the way that it is done is that specific libraries, ngos and universities are providing these services. This is the method the state has to equal out access, but it is still not equal because it's parallel and equal, but completely separate. but unfortunately because of the cost and the cost the state is willing to bbare, the systems according to Harpur and suzor will never be truly equal. the promise is that some ebook libraries and collections are actually accessible, and the digital formats are available. so there is some hope there that this is a starting point and shows us that it is possible./p